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CALZONE F.J., THEZE N., THIEBAUD, HILL P., BRITTEN R.L., BRITTEN  R.J. & DAVIDSON E.H. (1988) Developmental appearance of factors that bind specifically to ca-regulatory sequences of a gene expressed in the sea urchin embryo. Genes Dev. 2, 1074-1088.

CALZONE R.J., GRAINGER J., COFFMAN J. A. & DAVIDSON E.H. (1997) Extensive maternal representation of DNA-binding proteins that interact with regulatory target sites of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus CylIIa gene. Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 6, 79-83.

CAMERON R.A.,HOUGH-EVANS B.R., BRITTEN R.J. & DAVIDSON E.H. (1987) Lineage and fate of each blastomere of the eight-cell sea urchin embryo. Genes & Dev. 1:75-84.

CAMERON R.A. & DAVIDSON E.H. (1997) LiCl perturbs ectodermal Veg1 lineage allocations in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos. Dev. Biol. 187, p.236-239.

CAMERON R.A. et al. (2000) A sea urchin genome project : sequence scan, virtual map, and additional resources. PNAS, 97, 17:9514-9518. Ж

Campbell A. & Harbo R.M. (1991) The sea urchin fisheries in British Columbia, Canada. In: Y. Yanagisawa et al (eds). Biology of Echinodermata. Balkema, Rotterdam. Pp. 191-199.

CAMPBELL A.C. & JENSEN M. (1993) Rostrate pedicellariae : A morphologically distinct form of echinoid test appendage. JOurnal of Morphology, 218, p.237-247.

CANATORE P., ROBERTI M., RAINALDI G., GADALETA M.N. & SACCONE C. (1989) The complete nucleotide sequence, gene organization and genetic code of the mitochondrial genome of Paracentrotus lividus. Journ. Biol. Chem., 264, p.1669-1678.

CAROLL D.J., ALBAY D.T., HOANG K., O'NEILL F.J., KUMANO M. & FOLTZ K.R. (2000) The relationship between calcium, MAP kinase, and the initiation of DNA synthesis in the sea urchin egg at fertilization. Dev. Biol., 217, p.179-191.

CAROLL D.J., ALBAY D.T., TERASAKI M., JAFFE L.A. & FOLTZ K.R. (1999) Identification of PLCg-dependent and independent events during fertilization of sea urchin eggs. Dev. Biol., 206, p.232-247.

CASTILLO (DEL) J., SMITH D.S., VIDAL A.M. & SIERRA C. (1995) Catch in the Primary Spines of the Sea Urchin Eucidaris tribuloides : A Brief Review and a New Interpretation. Biol. Bull. 188 : 120-127. Ж

Cellario Ch. & Fenaux L. (1990) Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck) in culture (larval and benthic phases): Parameters of growth observed during two years following metamorphosis. Aquaculture, 84:173-188.

Chang F.Y. & Wu B.L.. (1957) The echinoids of Kwangtung Province. Bull. Inst. Mar, Biol. Acad. Sinica 1: 1-80.

Chang F.Y., Liao Y.L., WU B. & CHEN L.J.. (1964) Illustrated fauna of China: Echinodermata. Beijing: Science Press.

CHANG Y.Q. & WANG Z.C. (1997) The effects of low salinity and diets on the young sea urchin, S. intermedius. Marine Science (en chinois), 3, p.1-2.

CHANG Y.Q. & WANG Z.C. (1997) The raft culture of sea urchin, S. intermedius. Journal of Dalian Fisheries University (en chinois), (2), p.7-14.

CHANG Y.Q. & WANG Z.C. (1999) Effect of temperature and algae on feeding and growth in sea urchin, S. intermedius. Journal of Fisheries of China (en chinois), 23, (1), p.72-79.

CHANG Y.Q. & WANG Z.C. (1999) Net cage culture at sea in summer, medium culture and land pond culture for transplanted Japanese sea urchin S. intermedius. Journal of China Fisheries Science (en chinois), 6, (2), p.78-82

CHANG Y.Q. & WANG Z.C. (2000) Cross breeding between four species of sea urchins, feasibility and early development of F1 offspring. Journal of Fisheries of China, 24, (3), p.211-216.

CHAO S.M. (2000) The irregular sea urchins (Echinodermata : Echinoidea) from Taiwan with descriptions of six new records. Zoological Studies, 39, (3), p.250-265. Ж

Chazottes V., Campion-AIsumard (Le) T., Peyrot-Clausade M., (1995) Bio­erosion rates on coral reefs: interactions between macroborers, micro-borers and grazers (Moorea, French Polynesia). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 113,189-198.

Chazottes V. (1996) Étude expérimentale de la bioérosion et de la sédimen-togénèse en milieu récifal : effets de l'eutrophisation (île de la Réunion, Océan Indien). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris 323, 787-794.

CHAZOTTES V., CHEVILLOTTE & DUFRESNE A. (2004) Caractérisation de la production particulaire par l'oursin Echinometra mathaei sur les récifs Indo-Pacifiques : influence des peuplements coralliens et implications sur la dynamique sédimentaire. Géobios, 37, p.13-22. Ж

Chen C.P. & Chang K.H.. (1981) The regular sea urchins of Taiwan. Bull. Inst. Zool., Acad. Sinica 20: 79-86.

CHEN C.-P. & CHAO C.-M. (1997) Reduction of growth rate as the major process in the miniaturization of the sand dollar Sinaechinocyamus mai. Biol. Bull., 193, p.90-96.

CHESHER R.H. (1968) The systematics of sympatric species in West Indian spatangoids : a revision of the genera Brissopsis, Plethotaenia, Paleopneustes, and Saviniaster. Studies in Tropical Oceanography, 7, 168 p., 35 pl.

CHIBA, KAZUYOSHI, MOTONORI HOSHI, JANET M. A. & STEINHARDT R.A. (1999) Activation of the proteasomes of sand dollar eggs at fertilization depends on the intracellular pH rise. Dev. Biol., 209, p.52-59.

Chiu S.T. (1990) Age and growth of Anthocidaris crassispina (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in Hong Kong. Bull. Mar. Sci., 47(1):94-103.


Claerebout M. & Jangoux M. (1985) Conditions de digestion et activite de quelques polysaccharidases dans le tube digestif de 1'oursin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata). Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 13(1):51-54.

CLARK A. H. (1932) Echinoderms from the Islands of Niuafoou and Nukualofa, Tonga Archipelago, with the Description of a New Genus and Two New Species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 2905, 80, (5), p. 1-12, pl. 1-8.

CLARK A. H. (1934) A New Sea-Urchin from Florida. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 24, (l), p.52-53.

CLARK A.H. (1939) Echinoderms (other than Holothurians) Collected on the Presidential Cruise of 1938. Smithsonian Miscel­laneous Collections, 98, (11), p. 1-18, pl. 4-5.

CLARK A.H. (1942) Echinodermata, part 6 of Geology and biology of Norgh Atlantic deep-sea cores between New-foundland and Ireland. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 196-D, p.111-117, 2 pl.

CLARK A. H (1946) Echinoderms from the Pearl Islands, Bay of Panama, with a revision of the Pacific Species of the Genus Encope. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 106, (5), p.1-11, pl. 1-4.

CLARK A.M. (1955) Echinodermata of the Gold Coast. Journal of the West African Science Association, 1, (2), p. 16-56, figures 1-23, pl. 2.

clark A.M. & Rowe F.W.E.. (1971) Monograph of shallow-water Indo-West Pacific echinoderms. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Publ. 690:1-238.

clark A.M. & Courtman-Stock L. (1976) The echinoderms of South­ern Africa. Brit. Mus, Nat. Hist. Publ. 766: 1-277.

CLARK H.L. (1907) The Cidaridae. Harvard College Mus. Comp. Zoology Bull., vol.51, n°7, p.163-230, 11pl. Ж

CLARK H.L. (1910) The Echinoderms of Peru. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll., vol.52, n°17, Cambridge.

CLARK H.L. (1911) The genera of Recent clypeastroids. Annals and Mag. Nat. History, 8, vol.7, p.593-605.

CLARCK H.L. (1912) Hawaiian and other Pacific Echini. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard coll., 34, p.209-383.

CLARK H.L. (1914) Hawaiian and other Pacific Echini : The Clypeastridae, Arachnoididae, Laganidae, Fibulariidae, and Scutellidae. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol.46, n°1, 78p., pl.122-143.

CLARK H.L. (1917) The Echinoneidae, Nucleolitidae, Urechinidae, Echinocorythidae, Calymnidae, Pourtalesiidae, Paleostomatidae, Aeropsidae, Palaeopneustidae, Hemiasteridae, and Spatangidae. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol.46, n°2, p.85-283, pl.144-161.

CLARCK H.L. (1917) Hawaiian and other Pacific Echini. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard coll., 46, (2), p.81-284, pl. 144-161.

CLARK H.L. (1922) Notes on Echinodermata from the West Coast of Central America. Zoologica Sc. contrib. New-York Zool. Soc., XXXV, 3.

CLARK H.L. (1923) The Echinoderm Fauna of South Africa. Annals of the South African Museum, 13, p.221-435, 4 figures, pl. 8-23.

CLARK H.L. (1923) Two new genera of sea-urchins. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol.65, p.341-348.

CLARK H.L. (1925) A Catalogue of the Recent Sea-Urchins (Echinoidea) in the Collection of the British Museum (Natural History). 250 pages, 12 pl.. London: Trustees of the British Museum.

CLARK H.L. (1925) A New Clypeaster from Angola. Annals of the South African Museum, 20, (5), p.317-318,pl. 33.

CLARK H.L. (1925) Echinoderms from the South African Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Part I: Sea-Urchins (Echinoidea). Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey Report, 4, p.1-16, pl. 1-4.

CLARK H.L. (1925) Echinoderms of Tropical Pacific. Echinoderms Other than Sea-Stars. Bernice P. Bishop Bulletin, 27, p.89-112, pl. 9-11.

CLARK H.L. (1926) Notes on a Collection of Echinoderms from the Australian Museum. Records of the Australian Museum, 15, (2), p. 183-192, figure 1.

CLARK H.L. (1928) The Sea-Lilies, Sea-Stars, Brittle-Stars, and Sea-Urchins of the South Australian Museum. Records of the South Australian Museum, 3, (4), p.361-482, figures 108-142.

COFFMAN J.A., KIRCHHAMER C.V., HARRINGTON M.G. & DAVIDSON E.H. (1996) SpRunt-1, a new member of the runt domain family of ranscription factors, is a positive regulator of the aboral ectoderm-specific CylIIa gene in sea urchin embryos. Dev. Biol. 174, 43-54.

COFFMAN J.A., KIRCHHAMER C.V., HARRINGTON M.G. & DAVIDSON E.H. (1997) SpMyb functions as an intramodular represser to regulate spatial expression of CylIIa in sea urchin embryos. Development 124, 4717-4727.

Comely C.A. & Ansell A.D. (1988) Population density and growth of Echinus esculentus L. on the Scottish West Coast. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Set, 27:311-334.


Conand C. & Sloan N.A. (1989) World fisheries for echinoderms. In: J.F. Caddy (ed.). Marine invertebrate fisheries: their assessment and management. Wiley & Sons, New York. Pp. 647-663.

Conand C., Chabanet P., Cuet P., Letourneur Y, (1997) The carbonate budget of a fringing reef in La Réunion Island (Indian Ocean): sea urchin and fish bioerosion and net calcification. Proceedings 8th International Coral Reef Symposium 1, 953-958.

CONAND C., HEEB M., PEYROT-CLAUSADE M. & FONTAINE MF. (1998) Evaluations of bioerosion by two types of the sea urchin Echinometra mathaei, on several sites of a fringing reef in La Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) and comparison with other sites. in: R. Mooi& M. Telford (eds). Echinoderms: San Francisco. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam : 609-615.

Conand C., Heeb M., Peyrot-Clausade M. & FONTAINE M.F. (1998) Bioero­sion by the sea urchin Echinometra on La Reunion reefs (Indian Ocean) and comparison with Tiahura reefs (French Polynesia). In: Mooi R. & Telford M. (Eds.), Echinoderms: San Francisco. Proceedings of the 9th International Echinoderm Conference, pp. 609-615.

COTTEUR G., DANIS B., FOWLER S.W., TEYSSIE J.-L., DUBOIS P & WARNAU M. (2001) Effects of PCB's on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the limmune cells of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata). Mar. Poll. Bull., 42 (2001), p.667-672.

Crapp G.B. & Willis M.E. (1975) Age determination in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck), with notes on the reproductive cycle. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 20:157-178.


Crook A.C., Verling E. & Bames D.K.A. (1999) Comparative study of the covering reaction of the purple sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, under laboratory and fied conditions. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 79(6): 111 7-1121.

Cuellar-Mata P., Martinez-Cadena G., Castellano LE. et al. (1995) Multiple GTP-binding proteins in sea urchin sperm: evidence for Gs and small G-proteins. Dev. Growth Differ. 37,173-181.

Cuenot L. (1948) Anatomic, ethologie et systematique des echinodermes. Pp. 3-372, Vol. 11 in Traite de Zoologie, P. Grassé, ed., Paris, Masson.