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Gage J.D. & Tyier PA. (1985) Growth and recruitment of the deep-sea urchin Echinus affinis. Mar. Biol., 90:41-53.


Gage J.D., Tyier P.A. & Nichols D. (1986) Reproduction and growth of Echinus acutus var. norvegicus Diiben & KLoren and E. elegans Diiben & Koren on the continental slope off Scotland. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 101:61-83.


Gage J.D. (1987) Growth of the deep-sea irregular sea urchins Echinosigra phiale and Hemiaster expergitus in the Rockall Trough (N.E. Atlantic Ocean). Mar. Biol., 96:19-30.


Gage J.D. (1991) Skeletal growth zones as age-markers in the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Mar. Biol., 110:217-228.


Gage J.D. (1992) Natural growth bands and growth variability in the sea urchin Echinus esculentus: Results from tetracycline tagging. Mar. Biol., 114:607-616.


GALINDO B.E., MOY G.W. & VACQUIER V.D. (2004) A third sea urchin sperm receptor for egg jelly module protein, suREJ2, concentrates in the plasma membrane over the sperm mitochondrion. Develop. Growth Dirref. 46, 53-60. Ж

Gan L., Mao, C.A., Wikramanayake A., Angerer, L.M., Angerer, R.C. & Klein W.H. (1995) An orthodenticle-related protein from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Dev. Biol. 167: 517-528.

GAO X.S. & CHANG Y.Q. (1999) Economic sea urchin and culture in China. China Agriculture Press (en chinois), Beijing.

Garbers D.L., Hansbrough J.R., Radany E.W., Hyne R.V.& Kopf G.S.(1980) Purification and characterization of calmodulin from sea urchin spermatozoa, J. Reprod. Fertil. 59 : 377-381.

GARMAN H. & COLTON B. (1883) Some notes on the development of Arbacia punctulata Lam. Studies Biol. Lab. Johns Hopkins University, 2, p.247-255.

Gebauer P. & Moreno C.A. (1995) Experimental validation of the growth rings of Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) in Southern Chile (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Fish. Res., 21:423-435.

GEORGE S.B. (1990) Population and seasonal differences in egg quality of Arbacia lixula (Echinodermata : Echinoidea). Invertebr. Reprod. Dev., 17, p.111-121.

GEORGE S.G., CELLARIO C. & FENAUX L. (1990) Population differences in egg qualityof Arbacia lixula (Echinodermata Echinoidea) : proximate composition of eggs and larval development. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 141, p.107-118.

GEORGE S.B. (1996) Echinoderm egg and larval quality as a function of adult nutritional state. Oceanol. Acta, 19, p.297.308.

GEORGE S.B., LAWRENCE J.M., LAWRENCE A.L., SMILEY J. & PLANK L. (2001) Carotenoids in the adult diet enhance egg and juvenile production in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Aquaculture, 199, p.353-360.

GHIOLD J. (1982) Observations on the clypeasteroid Echinocyamus pusillus (Müller). J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol., Amsterdam, 61, p.57-74.

GHIOLD J. (1988) Species distributions of irregular echinoids. Biological Oceanography, 6, p.79-162.

GIBSON A.W. & BURKE R.D. (1985) The origin of pigment cells in embryos of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Dev. Biol. 107, 414-419.

Giese A.C. & Farmanfarmaian A.. (1963) Resistance of the purple sea urchin to osmotic stress. Biol. Bull. 124: 182-192.

Giese A.C. (1966) Changes in body-component indexes and respiration with size in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Physiol. Zool., 40:194-200.


Giese A.C., Farmanfarmaian A., Hilden S. & Doezema P. (1966) Respiration during the reproductive cycle in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Biol. Bull., 130:192-201.

GIUDICE G. (1999). Genes and their products in sea urchin development. Current Topics Devel. Biol., 45, p.41-116.

GLABE C.G. & VACQUIER V.D. (1977) Species specific agglutination of eggs by bindin isolated from sea urchin sperm. Nature, 267, p.836-838.

GLABE C.G. & LENNARZ W.J. (1979) Species-specific sperm adhesion in sea urchins. Journ. Cell. Biol., 83, p.595-604.

GLABE C.G. & CLARK D. (1991) The sequence of the Arbacia punctulata bindin cDNA and implications fr the structural basis of species-specific sperm adhesion and fertilization. Dev. Biol., 143, p.282-288.

Glynn P.W. (1988) El Niño wanning, coral mortality and reef framewoA destruction by echinoid bioerosion in the eastern Pacific. Galaxea 7, 129-160.

GODIN R.E., KLINZING D.C., PORCARO W.A. & ERNST S.G. (1997) Specification of endoderm in the sea urchin embryo. Mech. Dev. 67, 35-47.

Goebel N. & Barker M.F. (1998) Artificial diets supplemented with carotenoid pigments as feeds for sea urchins. In: R. Moot & M. Telford (eds). Echinoderms: San Francisco. Balkema, Rotterdam. Pp. 667-672.

Gonor J. J. (1973) Reproductive cycles in Oregon populations of the echinoid, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson). II. Seasonal changes in oocyte growth and in abundance of gametogenic stages in the ovary. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 12: 65-78.

Gonzalez M.L. Perez M.C., Lopez D.A. & Pino C.A (1993) Effects of algal diet on the energy available for growth of juvenile sea urchins Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782). Aquaculture, 115: 87-95.

Gonzalez-Martinez M.T., Galindo B.E., De La Torre L., Zapata 0., Rodriguez E., Florman H.M. & Darszon A. (2001) A sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+is required for the acrosome reaction in sea urchin sperm, Dev. Biol. 236 : 220-229.

GORDON L. (1926) The development of the calcareous test of Echinus miliaris. PHil. Trans. R. Soc. London, ser.B 214, p.259-312.

GORDON I. (1926) The development of the calcareous test of Echinodardium cordatum. Phil. trans. of the roy. soc. London, B, 215, p.255-313.

GORDON L. (1929) Skeletal development in Arbacia, Echinarachnius and Leptasterias. Phil. Trans. R. soc. LOndon, Ser. B 217, p.289-334.

Gosselin P. & Jangoux M. (1996) Induction of metamorphosis in Paracentrotus lividus larvae (Echinodermata, Echinoidea). Oceano. Acta, 19(3-4):293-296.


Gosselin P. & Jangoux M. (1998) From competent larva to exotrophic juvenile: a morphofunctional study of the perimetamorphic period of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea). Zoomorphology, 118:31-43.

Gray J.E. (1825) An attempt to divide the Echinoida, or sea eggs, into natural families. Ann. Philos. 26: 423-431

Grosjean Ph., Spirlet Ch. & Jangoux M. (1996) Experimental study of growth in the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) (Echinodermata). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 201:173-184.


Grosjean Ph., Spirlet Ch. & Jangoux M. (1999) Comparison of three body-size measurements for echinoids. In: M.D. Candia Camevali & F. Bonasoro (eds). Echinoderm Research 1998, Balkema, Rotterdam. Pp. 31-35.

GROSJEAN Ph., SPIRLET C. & JANGOUX M. (1999) Land-based, closed-cycle echiniculture of Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck) (Echinoidea: Echinodermata): A long-term experiment at a pilot scale. Journal of Shellfish Research, 17, (5), p.1523-1531.

Grosjean Ph. & Jangoux M. (2000) Growth of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus: model and optimization. Green sea urchin workshop, Moncton, Canada. Inline: (last consulted Sept. 8th 2001).

GRULA J.W., HALL T.J., HUNT J.A., GIUGNI T.D., GRAHAM G.J., DAVIDSON E.H. & BRITTEN R.J. (1982) Sea urchin DNA sequence variation and reduced interspecies differences of the less variable DNA sequences. Evolution, 36, p.665-676.

Guerrero & Darszon A.(1989) Egg jelly triggers a calcium influx which inactivates and is inhibited by calmodulin antagonists in the sea urchin sperm, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 980: 109-116.

Guerrero A. & Darszon A.(1989) Evidence for the activation of two different Ca2+ channels during the egg jelly-induced acrosome reaction of sea urchin sperm, J. Biol. Chem. 264 : 19593-19599.

GUETTAF N., SAN MARTIN G.A. & FRANCOUR P. (2000) Interpopulation variability of the reproductive cycle of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata : Echinoidea) in the South-western Mediterranean. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 80, p.899-907.

GUILLE A. & LASSERRE P. (1979) Consommation d'oxygène de l'oursin Abatus cordatus (Verrill) et activité oxydative de son biotope aux îles Kerguelen. Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat., paris, (Sci. Terre), 43, p.211-219.

Guille A., Laboute P. & Menou J.L.. (1986) Handbook of the sea-stars, sea-urchins and related echinoderms of New-Caledonia lagoon, Paris: Orstom.

Guillou M. & Michel Ch. (1993) Reproduction and growth of Sphaerechinus granularis (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in the Glenan archipelago (Brittany). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 73:172-193.

GUILLOU M. & LUMINGAS L. (1998) The reproductive cycle of the “blunt” sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck). Aquaculture International, 6, p.147-160.

GUILLOU M. & LUMINGAS L. (1999) Variation in the reproductive strategy of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) related to food availability. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 79, p.131-136.