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Laegdsgaard P., Byrne M. & Anderson D.T. (1991) Reproduction ofsympatric populations of Heliocidaris erythrogramma and H. tuberculata (Echinoidea) in New South Wales. Mar. Biol. 110:359-374.

LAMARE M. D. & STEWART B.G. (1998) Mass spawning in the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in a New Zealand fiord. Marine Biology. 132, p.135-140.

Lamare M.D. & Miadenov P.V. (2000) Modelling somatic growth in the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus (Echinoidea: Echinometridae). J. Exp. Mar. Biol.Ecol., 243:17-43.


LAMBERT J. (1910) Les Echinides des iles Snow-Hill et Seymour - Wissennschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Südpolar-Expedition 1901-1903, Stockholm, 3, p.1-15.


Lane J.E.M. & Lawrence J.M. (1980) Seasonal variation in body growth, density and distribution of a population of sand  dollars,  Mellita quinquiesperforata (Leske). Bull. Mar. Sci., 30(4):871-882.

LARRAIN A.P. (1985) Brachysternaster, new genus, and Brachysternaster chesheri, new species of antarctic echinoid (Spatangoida, Schizasteridae). Polar Biology (4), p.121-124.

LARRIN A.P. (1995) Biodiversity in Chilean echinoderms : state of the art and biosystematic synopsis. Gayana Zool., 59, p.73-96.

LAURIN B. & DAVID B. (1990) Mapping morphological changes in the spatangoid Echinocardium ; applications to ontogeny and interspecific comparisons. In "Echinoderm research" Proc. 2nd Europ. Echinoderms Conf., Bruxelles 1989 (C. DERIDDER, P. DUBOIS, M.C. LAHAYE & M. JANGOUX)

LAWRENCE J.M. (1975) On the relationship between marine plants and sea urchins. Oceanography mar. Biol., London, 13, 213-286.

Lawrence J.M. (1982) Digestion. In: M. Jangoux & J.M. Lawrence (eds.). Echinoderm nutrition. Balkema, Rotterdam. Pp. 283-316.


Lawrence J.M. & Lane J.M. (1982) The utilization of nutrients by postmetamorphic echinoderms. In: M. Jangoux & J.M. Lawrence (eds). Echinoderm nutrition. Balkema, Rotterdam. Pp. 331-371.


Lawrence J.M., Robbins B.D. & Bell S.S. (1995) Scaling of the pieces of the Aristotle's lantern in five species of Strongylocentrotus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). J. Nat. Hist., 29:243-247.

LAWRENCE J., BUSTOS E., OLAVE S. &  LAWRENCE A. (1997) Enhancement of gonad production in the sea urchin Loxechinus albus in Chile use food extruded feed. J. Aquaculture Soc., p.91-96.

LAWRENCE J.M. & BAZHIN A. (1998) Life-history strategies and the potential of sea urchins for aquaculture. J. Shellfish Res. 17, p.1515-1522.

LAWRENCE J.M., POMORY C.M. , SONNENHOLZNER J. & CHAO C.-M.  (1998) Bilateral symmetry of the petals in Mellita tenuis, Encope micropora, and Arachnoides placenta (Echinodermata: Clypeasteroida). Invert. Biol. 117, p. 94-100.

LAWRENCE J.M., TAN C.Y. (2001) Test damage to the sand dollar Mellita tenuis on the Florida gulf coast. Gulf Mexico Sci., 19, p.50-54.

LAWRENCE J.M., VASQUEZ J., ROBBINS B.D., & VEGA A. (1996). Lack of plasticity of the body form, Aristotle's lantern and spines of Tetrapygus niger (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Gayana Oceanol. 4, (2), p.93-97.

LAWRENCE J.M. (2001) Edible sea urchins : biology and ecology. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 419p.

Ledireach J.-P. (1987) La peche des oursins en Mediterranee: historique, techniques, legislation, production. In: C.F. Boudoresque (ed). Colloque international sur Paracentrotus lividus et les oursins comestibles. GIS Posidonie PubL, Marseille. Pp. 335-362.

LEE J.J., SHOTT R.J., ROSE S.J., THOMAS T.L., BRITTEN R.J. & DAVIDSON E.H. (1984) Sea urchin actin gene subtypes : gene number, linkage and evolution. J. Mol. Biol., 172, p.149-176.

LEE Y.H., HUANG G.M., CAMERON R.A., GRAHAM G., DAVIDSON E.H., HOOD L. & BRITTEN R.J. (1999) EST analysis of gene expression in early cleavage-stage sea urchin embryos. Development, 126, p.3857-3867.

Le Gall P. (1987) La pęche des oursins en Bretagne. In: C.F. Boudoresque (ed). Colloque international sur Paracentrotus lividus et les oursins comestibles. GIS Posidonie PubL, Marseille. Pp. 311-324.


Le Gall, Bucaille P.&D.  (1989) Sea urchins production by inland farming. In: N. De Pauw, E. Jaspers, H. Ackefors & N. Wilkins (eds.). Aquaculture - a biotechnology in progress. European Aquaculture Society, Bredene, Belgium. Pp. 53-59.


Le Gall P. (1990) Culture of echinoderms. In: G. Bamabe (ed.). Aquaculture, Vol. 1. Ellis Horwood, New York. Pp. 443-462.


Leinass, Christie H.P.&H.  (1996) Effects of removing sea urchins {Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis): stability of the barren state and succession of kelp forest recovery in the East Atlantic. Oecologia, 105:524-536.

Leong P.K.K. & Manahan D.T.. (1997) Metabolic importance of Na+/K+ -ATPase activity during sea urchin development. J. Exp. Biol. 200: 2881-2892.

LESSIOS H.A. (1981) Reproductive periodicity of the echinoids Diadema and Echinometra on the two coasts of Panama. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 50, p.47-61.

LESSIOS H.A. (1984) Possible prezygotic reproductive isolation in sea urchins separated by the Isthmus of Panama. Evolution, 38, p.1144-1148.

LESSIOS H.A. (1985) Annual reproductive periodicity in eight echinoid species on the Caribbean coast of Panama. p.303-312, in KEEGAN B.F. & O'CONNOR B.D.S. eds, Echinodermata. Proc. 5th Intern. Echinoderm Conf., Balkema, Rotterdam.

Lessios H.A. & C.W. Cunningham. (1990) Gametic incompatibility between species of the sea urchin Echino­metra on the two sides of the Isthmus of Panama. Evolution 44:933-941.

LESSIOS H.A. & CUNNINGHAM C.W. (1990) Gametic incompatibility between species of the sea urchin Echinometra on the two sides of the Isthmus of Panama. Evolution, 44, p.933-941.

LESSIOS H.A. (1991) Presence and absence of monthly reproductive rythms among eight Caribbean echinoids of the coast of Panama. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol, 153, p.27-47.

Lessios H.A., Kessing B.D., Wellington G.M. & A. Graybeal. (1996) Indo-Pacific echinoids in the tropical east Pacific. Coral Reefs 15:133-142.

LESSIOS H.A., KESSING D., ROBERTSON D.R. & PAULAY G. (1999) Phylogeography of the pantropical sea urchin Eucidaris in relation to land barriers and ocean currents. Evolution, 53, p.806-817.

LESSIOS H.A., KESSING D. & PEARSE J.S. (2001) Population structure and speciation in tropical seas : phylogeogrphy of the sea urchin Diadema. Evolution, 55, p.955-975.

Levitan D.R. (1988) Density-dependent size regulation and negative growth in the sea urchin Diadema antillarum Philippi. Oecologia, 76:627-629.

LEVITAN D. R., SEWELL M. A. & CHIA F.-S. (1991) Kinetics of fertilization in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus'. interaction of gamete dilution, age, and contact time. Biol. Bull. 181:371-378.

LEVITAN D. R. (1993) The importance of sperm limitation to the evolution of egg size in marine invertebrates. Am. Nat. 141:517-536.

LEVITAN D.R. (1996) Distribution, abundance and water flow influence fertilization success in natural assemblages of sea urchins. American Zoologist, 36, 12A.

LEVITAN D. R.  (1996) Effects of gamete traits on fertilization in the sea and the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Nature 382:153-155.

LEVITAN D.R. (1998) does Bateman's principle apply to broadcast-spawning organisms ? egg traits influence in situ fertilization rates among congeneric sea urchins. Ecolution, 52, p.1043-1056.

LEVITAN D. R.  (1998) Sperm limitation, sperm competition, and sexual selection in external fertilizers. Pp. 173-215 in T. Birkhead and A. Mailer, eds. Sperm competition and sexual selection. Academic Press, New York.

LEVITAN D.R. (2000) Optimal egg size in marine invertebrates : theory and phylogenetic analysis of the critical relationship between egg size and development time in echinoids. The American Naturalist, vol.156, 2, p.175-192 Ж

LEVITAN D. R.  (2000) Sperm velocity and endurance trade-off and influ­ence fertilization in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 267:531-534.

LEVITAN D. R. & IRVINE S. D. (2001) Fertilization selection on egg and jelly-coat size in the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus. Evolution 55:2479-2483.

LEVITAN D. R. (2002) Density-dependent selection on gamete traits in three congeneric sea urchins. Ecology 83:464-479.

LEVITAN D.R. (2002) The relationship between conspecific fertilization success and reproductive isolation among three congeneric sea urchins. Evolution, 56 (8):1599-1609.Ж

Liao Y.L. (1978) The echinoderms of Xisha Islands, Guangdong Privince, China. 3. Echinoidea. Stud, Mar, Sinica 12: 102-127.

Liao Y.L. & Li G.Z.. (1985) Additional report on the echinoids of Guangdong Province, China. Nanhai Studia Marina Sinica 7: 143-164.

Liao Y.L. & clark A.M.. (1995) The echinoderms of southern China. Beijing: Science Press.

Liquori, A.M., Monroy A., Parisi E. & Tripiciano A.  (1981) A theoretical equation for diauxic growth and its application to the kinetics of the early development of the sea urchin embryo. Differentiation, 20:174-175.

LITTLEWOOD D.T. & SMITH A.B. (1995) A combined morphological and molecular phylogeny for sea urchins (Echinoidea : Echinodermata). Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, B, 347, p.213-234.

LOPEZ A., MIRAGLIA S.J. & GLABE C.G. (1993) Structure/function analysis of the sea-urchin sperm adhesive protein bindin. Dev. Biol. 156: 24-33.

LOPEZ S., TURON X., MONTERO E., PALACIN C., DUARTE C.M. & TARJUELO I. (1998) Larval abundance, recruitment and early mortality in Paracentrotus lividus (Echinoidea). Interannual variability and plankton-bentho coupling. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 172, p.239-251.

LOVEN S. (1883) On Pourtalesia, a genus of Echinoidea. Kongl. Svenska Vetens. Akad Handl., 19 (1881), p.1-95.

Lowe C.J. & Wray G.A. (1997) Radical alterations in the roles of homeobox genes during echinoderm evolution. Nature 389:718-721.

Lowe C.J. & Wray G.A. (2000) Rearing larvae of sea urchins and sea stars for developmental studies. In R. S. Tuan and C. W. Lo (eds.). De­velopmental Biology Protocols. Humana Press, Totowa, pp. 9-15.

LOWE C.J., ISSEL-TARVER L & WRAY G.A. (2002) Gene expression and larval evolution : changing roles of distal-less and orthodenticle in echinoderm larvae. Evolution & development 4, 2:111-123.Ж

Lumingas L.J.L. & Guillou M. (1994) Growth zones and back-calculation for the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis from the bay of Brest, France. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 74:671-686.


LÜTZEN J. & NIELSEN K. (1975) Contributions to the anatomy and biology of Echineulima n.g. (Prosobranchia : Eulimidae), parasitic on sea urchins. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kobenhavn, 138, p.171-199.