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PALACIN C., TURON X., BALLESTEROS M., GIRIBET G. & LOPEZ S. (1998) Stock evaluation of three littoral echinoid species on the Catalan coast (north-western Mediterranean). PSZNI: Marine Ecology, 19, p.163-177.

PAGANO G., HIS E., BEIRAS R., DE BIASE A., KORKINA L.G., IACCARINO M., ORAL R., QUINIOU F., WARNAU M. & TRIEFF N.M. (1996) Cytogenetic, developmental and biochemical effects of aluminium, iron, and their mixture in sea urchins and mussels. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 31, p.466-474.

PALUMBI S.R. & WILSON A.C. (1990) Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the sea urchins Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and S. droebachiensis. Evolution, 44, p.403-415.

PALUMBI S.R. & METZ E.C. (1991) Strong reproductive isolation between closely related tropical sea urchins (genus Echinometra). Mol. Biol. Evol., 8, p.227-239.

Palumbi S.R. (1999) All males are not created equal: fertility dif­ferences depend on gamete recognition polymorphisms in sea urchins. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 96(22): 12632-12637.

PALUMBI S.R., GRABOWSKY G., DUDA T., GEYER L. & TACHINO N. (1997) Speciation and population genetic structure in tropical Pacific sea urchins. Evolution, 51, p.1506-1517.

PALUMBI S.R. (1998) Species formation and the evolution of gamete recognition loci. p.271-278 in HOWARD D.J. & BERLOCHER S.H. eds, Endless forms : species and speciation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

PALUMBI S.R. (1999) All males are not created equal: fertility differences depend on gamete recognition polymorphisms in sea urchins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:12632-12637.

PARKS A.L., PARR B.A., CHIN J.E., LEAF D.S. & RAFF R.A. (1988) Molecular analysis of hetero­chronic changes in the evolution of direct devel­oping sea urchins. J. Evol. Biol. 1:27-44.

PAWSON D.L. (1969) Echinoidea. Distribution of selected groups of marine invertebrates in waters south of 35 S latitude. New York, American Geograph. Soc., p.38-41.

PAWSON D.L. & MOOI R.J. (2001) How many five-holed sand dollars live in the Western Atlantic ? Gulf of Mexico Science.

Pearse J.S. & Pearse V.B, (1975) Growth zones in the echinoid skeleton. Amer. Nat., 15:731-753.

PEARSE J. S., McCLARY D. J., SEWELL M. A., AUSTIN W. C., PEREZ-RUZAFA A. & BYME M. (1988) Simultaneous spawning of 6 spe­cies of echinoderms in Barkley Sound, British Columbia. Int. J. Invertebr. Reprod. Dev. 14:279-288.

PEARSE J.S. & CAMERON R.A. (1991) Echinodermata : Echinoidea. p.513-662 in Reproduction of marine invertebrates, vol.6, GIESE A.C., PEARSE J.S. & PEARSE V.B. eds, Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, CA.

Peng S.N. & Tiao S.H.. (1971) The ecology of Taiwan sea urchin, research and study on the processing of Taiwan sea urchin picked from its gonad, (1). Exp. Rept. Taiwan Fish. Res. Inst. 18: 129-155.

PENNINGTON J. T., RUMRILL S.S. & CHIA F. S. (1986) Stage-specific predation upon embryos and larvae of the Pacific sand dollar, Dendraster excentricus, by eleven species of common zooplankton predators. Bulletin of Marine Science 39:234-240.

PENNINGTON J.T. & STRATHMANN R.R. (1990) Consequences of the calcite skeletons of planktonic echinoderm larvae for orientation, swimming, and shape. Biol. Bull, 179, p.121-133.

Percy J.A. (1972) Thermal adaptation in the boreo-arctic echinoid, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Muller 1776). I. Seasonal acclimatization of respiration. Physiol. Zool., 45(4):277-289.

Perrier E. (1875) L'appareil circulatoire des oursins. Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen. 4: 605-643.

PEYROT CLAUSADE M., CHABANET P., CONAND C., FONTAINE M.F., LETOURNEUR Y. & HARMELIN-VIVIEN M. (2000) Seaurchin and fish bioerosion on La Réunion and Moorea reefs. Bull. mar. sci, 66, (2), p.477-485.

PHILIP G.M. (1965) Classification of echinoids. Journ. Paleontol., 39, p.45-62.

Podell S.B. & Vacquier V.D. (1985) Purification of the Mr 80,000 and Mr 210,000 proteins of the sea urchin sperm plasma membrane. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 2715-2718.

POULIN E. & FERAL J.P. (1995) Pattern of spatial distribution of a brood-protecting schizasterid echinoid, Abatus cordatus, endemic to the Kerguelen Islands. Marine Ecology Progress Ser., 118, p.179-186.

POULIN E. & FERAL J.P. (1996) Why are there so many species of brooding antarctic echinoids ? Evolution, 50, p.820-830.

POULIN E. & FERAL J.P. (1995) Genetic structure of the brooding sea urchin Abatus cordatus, an endemic of the subantarctic Kerguelen Island. In Echinoderms San Francisco. R. MOOI & M. TELFORD Eds ; Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, p.793-795.

POULIN E. & FERAL J.P. (2001) Consequences of brood protection in the diversity of Antarctic echinoids. In : Concepts and methods for studying marine biodiversity, from gene to ecosystem, J.P. Féral, European TMR/CNRS practical training course. Océanis, 24, (4), p.159-188 (1998).

Pouvreau S., Bacher C. & Heral M. (2000) Ecophysiological model of growth and reproduction of the black pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera: potential applications for pearl farming in French Polynesia. Aquaculture, 186(1-2): 117-144.

PROUHO H. (1888) Recherches sur le Dorocidaris papillata et quelques autres échinides de la Méditerranée. Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen. (2), p.213-380.