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RAFF R.A., ANSTROM J.A., HUFFMAN C.J., LEAF D.S., LOO J.H., SHOWMAN R.M. & WELLS D.A. (1984) Origin of a gene regulatory mechanism in the evolution of echinoderms. Nature, 310, p.312-314.

RAFF R.A. (1987) Constraint, flexibility and Phylo­genetic change in the evolution of direct develop­ment in sea urchins. Develop. Biol. 119:6-19.

RAFF R.A., FIELD K.G., GHISELIN M.T., LANE D.L., OLSEN G.J., PACE N.R., PARKS A.L., PARR B.A.& RAFF E. (1988) Molecular analysis of distant phylogenetic relationships in echinoderms. p.30-41 in Echinoderm Phylogeny and Evolutionary Biology, PAUL C.R.C. & SMITH A.B. eds, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Raff R.A., Herlands L., Morris V.B. & Healy J.. (1990) Evo­lutionary modification of echinoid sperm correlates with developmental mode. Dev. Growth.

Raff R.A. (1992) Direct-developing sea urchins and the evolutionary reor­ganization of early development. BioEssays 14:211-218. Differ. 32(3):283-291.

RAMER D. E. & NORDIN D.M.A. (1978) Physical data from a study of size, weight and gonad quality for the green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) over a one-year period. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Manuscript Report Series 1476. Pacific Biological Station, Namaimo, British Columbia.

RAUP D.M. (1968) Theoretical mophology of echinoid growth. Journal of Paleontology, vol.42, n°5, parts II, p.50-63.

Raymond B.G. & Scheibling R.E. (1987) Recruitment and growth of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Muller) following mass mortalities off Nova Scotia, Canada. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 108:31-54.

REES C.B. (1953) The larvae of the Spatangidae. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK, 32, p.477-490.

Regis M.-B. (1969) Premières données sur la croissance de Paracentrotus lividus Lmk. Tethys, 1(4): 1049-1056.


Regis M.-B. & Arfi R. (1978) Etude comparee de la croissance de trois populations de Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck), occupant des biotopes differents, dans Ie goife de Marseille. C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris D, 286:1211-1214.


Regis M.-B. (1979) Croissance negative de l'oursin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck) (Echinoidea-Echinidea). C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris D, 188:355-358.


ROBERTS J.W., JOHNSON S.A., KIER P., HALL T.J., DAVIDSON E.H. & BRITTEN R.J. (1985) Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences expressed in sea urchin eggs and early embryos. J. Mol. Evol., 22, p.99-107.


ROBERTSON A.J., HOWARD J.T., DOMINSKI Z., SCHNACKENBERG B.J., SUMEREL J.L., McCARTHY J.J., COFFMAN J.A. & MARZLUFF W.F. (2004) The sea urchin stem-loop-binding protein : a maternally expressed protein that probably functions in expression of multiple classes of histone mRNA. Nucleic Acids Research, vol.32, n°2, p.811-818. Ж

ROMANO L.A. & WRAY G.A. (2003) Conservation of Endo16 expression in sea urchins despite evolutionary divergence in both cis and trans-acting components of transcriptional regulation. Development 130:4187-4199.Ж

Rose E.P.F. (1976) Some observations on the recent holectypoid echinoid Echinoneus cyclostomus and their palaeoecological significance. Thalassia Jugosl. 12: 299-306.

ROSE E.P.F. (1978) Some observations on the Recent holectypoid echinoid Echinoneus cyclostomus and their palaeoecological significance. Thalassia jugosl., Zagreb, 12, p.299-306.

ROWE  F.W.E. & VAIL L.L. (1982) The distribution of Tasmanian echinoids in relation to southern Australian biogeographic prov­inces. Pp. 219-225 in J. M. Lawrence, ed. Echinoderms, Pro­ceedings of the International Conference, Tampa Bay. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Rowley R.J. (1989)   Settlement  and  recruitment  of sea  urchins (Strongylocentrotus spp.) in a sea urchin barren ground and a kelp bed: are populations regulated by settlement or post-settlement? Mar. Biol., 100:485-494.


Rowley R.J. (1990) Newly settled sea urchins in a kelp bed and urchin barren ground: a comparison of growth and mortality. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 62:229-240.

ROZHNOV S.V. (1998) The left-right asymmetry in echinoderms. In: Mooi, R., Telford, M. (Eds) Echinoderms: San Francisco. Proceedings of the 9th International Echinoderm Conference, San Francisco, 5-9 August (1996). Balkema, Rotterdam, p.73-78.

RUMRILL S. S., PENNINGTON J. T. &  CHIA F. S. (1985) Differential susceptibility of marine invertebrate larvae: laboratory predation of sand dollar, Dendraster excentricus (Eschscholtz), embryos, and larvae by zoeae of the red crab, Cancer productus Randall. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 90:193-208.

RUMRILL S. S. (1987) Differential predation upon embryos and larvae of temperate Pacific echinoderms. Ph.D. diss. University of Alberta, Edmonton.

RUMRILL S. S.  (1990) Natural mortality of marine invertebrate larvae. Ophelia 32:163-198.

Russell M.P. (1987) Life history traits and resource allocation in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 108:199-216.


RUSSEL M.P. (1998) Ressource allocation plasticity in sea urchins : rapid, diet induced, phenotypic changes in the green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Müller). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 220, p.1-14.


RUSSEL M.P., EBERT T.A. & PETRAITIS P. (1998) Field estimates of growth and mortality of the green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Ophelia, 48, p.137-153.


Russell M.P. & Meredith R.W. (2000) Natural growth lines in echinoid ossicles are not reliable indicators of age: a test using Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Invert. Biol., 119(4):410-420.

RUSSEL M.P. & MEREDITH R.W. (2000) Natural growth lines in echinoid ossicles are not reliable indicators of age : A test using Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Invertebrate Bio., 19, p.410-420.

RUSSEL M.P. (2000) A tank-system design for the hatchery production of sea-urchin larvae. In Proceedings of the Workshop on the Coordination of Green Sea Urchin Research in Atlantic Canada., Université de Moncton.

RUSSEL M.P. (2001) Spatial and temporal variation in growth of the green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, in the Gulf of Maine, USA. Proceedings of the 10th Internat. Echinoderm Conference.