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SARTORETTO S. & FRANCOUR P. (1997) Quantification of bioerosion by Sphaerechinus granularis on 'coralligène' concretions of the western Mediterranean. J. Mar.Biol. Ass. U.K., 77, p.565-568.

SASTRY D.R.K. (1996) Observations on the distribution of the echinoid Stomopneustes variolaris (Lamarck) along the Visakhapatnam Coast, India. J. Andaman Sci. Assoc. 12, p.26-30.

SASTRY D.R.K. (1997) Sexual maturity of Stomopneustes variolaris at Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. Geobios new Reports, 16, p.147-148.

SAUCEDE T. & DAVID B. (2003). The strange apical system of the genus Pourtalesia (Holasteroida, Echinoidea), in: Féral, J.-P.; David, B. (2003). Echinoderm Research 2001: proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Echinoderm Research, Banyuls-sur-mer, 3-7 September 2001. pp. 131-136.

SCHATT P. & FERAL J.P. (1991) The brooding cycle of Abatus cordatus (Echinodermata : Spatangoida) at Kerguelen Islands. Polan Biol., 11, p.283-292.

SCHATT P. & FERAL J.P. (1996) Completely direct development of Abatus cordatus, a brooding Schizasterid (Echinodermata : Echinoidea) from Kerguelen, with description of "perigastrulation", a hypothetical new mode of gastrulation. Biol. Bull. 190, p.24-44.

SCHOPPE S. & WERDING B. (1996) The boreholes of the sea urchin genus Echinometra (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Echinometridae) as a microhabitat in tropical South America. - P.S.Z.N.I: Marine Ecology, 17, (1-3), p.181-186.

SCHROETER S. C. (1978) Experimental studies of competition as a factor affecting the distribution and abundance of purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson). Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Barbara.

SCHROETER S.C., DIXON J.D., EBERT T.A. & RANKIN J.V. (1996) Effects of kelp forests Macrocystis pyrifera on the larval distribution and settlement of red and purple sea urchins Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and S. pupuratus. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 133, p.125-134.

SchuLz J.R., Wessel G.M. & Vacquier V.D.(1997) The exocytosis regu­latory proteins syntaxin and VAMP are shed from sea urchin sperm during the acrosome reaction, Dev. Biol. 191 : 80-87.

SchuLz J.R., Sasaki J.D. & Vacquier V.D. (1998) Increased association of synaptosome-associated protein of 25kDa with syntaxin and vesicle-associated membrane protein following acrosomal exocy­tosis of sea urchin sperm, J. Biol. Chem. 273 : 24355-24359.

SCHWAMMER H.M. (1989) Bald-sea-urchin disease : Record of incidence in irregular echinoids - Spatangus purpureus, from the SW-coast of Krk (Croatia - Jugoslavia), Zoologischer Anzeiger, 223, (1/2), p.100-106.

SCONZO G., CASCINO D., AMORE G., GERACI F. & GIUDICE G. (1998) Effect of IMPase inhibitor L690,330 on sea urchin development. Cell Biol. Intern., 22, p.91-94.

SCONZO G., GERACI F., MELFI R., CASCINO D., SPINELLI G.,GIUDICE  G. & SIRCHIA R. (1997) Sea urchin HSF in vitro and in transgenic embryos. BBRC 240, p.436-441.

Scott L.B., Lennarz W.J., Raff R.A. & Wray G.A.. (1990) The "lecithotrophie" sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma lacks typical yolk platelets and yolk glycoproteins. Dev. Biol. 138:188-193.

Sellem F., Langar H. & Pesando D. (2000) Age et croissance de 1'oursin Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck, 1816 (Echinodermata-Echinoidea) dans Ie goife de Tunis (Mediterranee). Oceanol. Acta, 23(5):607-613.

SHEARER C., MORGAN W. & FUCHS H. M. (1913) On the experimental hybridization of echinoids. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 204:255-362.

Shigei M. (1981) A study on the echinoid fauna of the East China Sea and the coastal waters of southern Korea, Kyushu, Ryukyu, and Taiwan. Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 26: 191-241.

SHIGEI M. (1986) The echinoids of Sagami Bay. Maruzen, Tokyo.

Sime A.A.T. (1981) Growth ring analyses in regular echinoids. Prog. Underwat. Sci., 7:7-14.


Sime A.A.T. Cranmer & G.J. (1985) Age and growth of North Sea echinoids. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 65:583-588.

Sloan N.A., clark A.M. & Taylor J.D.. (1979) The echinoderms of Aldabra and their habitats. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) 37:81-128.

Smith A.B. (1978) A functional classification of the coronal pores of regular echinoids. Palaeontology 21: 759-789.

Smith D.S., Wainwright S.A., Baker J. & Cayer M.L. (1981) Structural features associated with the movement and “catch” of the sea-urchin spines. Tissue & Cell. 13:299-320.

Sloan N.A. (1985) Echinoderm fisheries of the world. In: B.F. Keegan & B.D.F. O'Connor (eds). Proceedings of the fifth international echinoderm conference, Galway. Balkema, Rotterdam. Pp. 109-124.

SMITH A.B. (1988) Phylogenetic relationship, divergence times, and rates of molecular evolution for Camarodont sea urchin. Mol. Biol. Evol., 5, p.345-365.

SMITH A.B. & HOLUNGWORTH N.T (1990) Tooth structure and phylogeny of the Upper Perm­ian echinoid Miocidaris keyserlingi. Proc. Yorkshire Geol. Soc. 48:47-60.

SMITH A.B., LAFAY B. & CHRISTEN R. (1992) Comparative variation of morphological and molecular evolution through geologic time : 28s ribosomal RNA versus morphology in echinoids. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, 338, p.365-382.

SMITH A.B., LITTLEWOOD D.T.J. & WRAY G.A. (1995) Comparing patterns of evolution : larval and adult life history stages and ribosomal RNA of post-paleozoic echinoids. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, B, 349, p.11-18.

SMITH A.B., LITTLEWOOD D.T.J. & WRAY G.A. (1996) Comparative evolution of larval and adult life-history stages and ribosomal RNA amongst post-paleozoic echinoids. p.234-254 in New Uses for New Phylogenies, HARVEY P.H., BROWN A.J.L., SMITH J.M. & NEE S. eds, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

SMITH A.B. (1997) Echinoderm larvae and phylogeny. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 28:219-241.

SMITH A.B. & LITTLEWOOD D.T.J. (1997) Molecular and morphological evolution during the post-paleozoic diversifiaction of echinoids. p.559-583 in Molecular Evolution and Adaptive radiation, GIVNISH T.J. & SYSTSMA K.J. eds, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

SMITH A.B. & STOCKLEY B. (2005) Fasciole pathways in spatangoid echinoids : a new source of phylogenetically informative characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 144.

Smith B.D., Botsford L.W. & Wing S.R. (1998) Estimation of growth and mortality parameters from size frequency distributions lacking age patterns: the red sea urchin {Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) as an example. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 55:1236-1247.

Smith, D.S., del Castillo J., Morales M. & Luke B. (1990) The attachment of collagenous ligament to stereom in primary spines of the sea-urchin. Eucidaris tribuloides. Tissue & Cell. : 157-176.

SMITH M.J., BOOM J.D.G. & RAFF R.A. (1990) Single copy DNA distance between two congeneric sea urchin species exhibiting radically different modes of development. Mol. Biol. Evol. 7:315-326.


Snick J.M. (1983) Respiratory gas exchange in echinoderms. In: M. Jangoux & J.M. Lawrence (eds). Echinoderm studies, vol. 1. Balkema, Rotterdam. Pp. 67-110.

SOLIS-MARIN F.A., LAGUARDA-FIGUERAS A. & LEIJA-TRISTAN A.  (1997) Morphology, systematics, and distribution of Meoma ventricosa grandis and M. ventricosa ventricosa (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Brissidae) along Mexican coasts. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 110, (2), p.301-309.

SOLOVJEV A.N. (1974) Evolutionary features of the suborder Meridosternina (Echinoidea) and origin of the deep-water families Urechinidae and Pourtalesiidae. The biology of marine molluscs and echinoderms. In : Soviet-Japanese symposium on marine Biology. Vladivostok, 60.

SOLTYSIK-ESPANOLA M., KLINZING D.C., PFARR K., BURKE R.D. & ERNST S.G. (1994). Endol6, a large multidomain protein found on the surface and ECM of endodermal cells during sea urchin gastrulation, binds calcium. Dev. Biol. 165, 73-85.

Spicer J.I., Taylor A.C. & Hill A.D. (1988) Acid-base status in the sea urchins Psammechinus miliaris and Echinus esculentus (Echino­dermata: Echinoidea) during emersion. Mar. Biol. 99: 527-534.

Spirlet Ch., Grosjean Ph. & Jangoux M. (1994) Differentiation of the genital apparatus in a juvenile echinoid {Paracentrotus lividus). In: B. David, A. Guille, J.-P. Feral & M. Roux (eds). Echinoderms through Time, Balkema, Rotterdam. Pp. 881-886.

SPIRLET C., GROSJEAN P. & JANGOUX M. (1998) Optimizing food distribution in closed-circuit cultivation of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus: Echinoidea) Aquatic Living Resources 11, (4), p.273-277.

SPIRLET C., GROSJEAN P. & JANGOUX M. (1998) Reproductive cycle of the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus : analysis by means of the maturity index. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 34, (1), p.69-81.

Spirlet Ch. (1999) Biologie de 1'oursin comestible (Paracentrotus lividus): controle du cycle reproducteur et optimalisation de la phase de remplissage gonadique. PhD Thesis, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.


Spiriet Ch., Grosjean Ph. & Jangoux M. (2000) Optimization of gonad growth by manipulation of temperature and photoperiod in cultivated sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck) (Echinodermata). Aquaculture, 185:85-99.


Spirlet Ch., Grosjean Ph. & Jangoux M. (2001) Cultivation of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) fed extruded feeds: digestion efficiency, somatic production and gonadal growth. Aqua. Nutr., 7(2):91-99.


STANWELL-SMITH D. & PECK L.S. (1998) Temperature and Embryonic Development in Relation to Spawning and Field Occurrence of Larvae of Three Antarctic Echinoderms. Biol. Bull. 194 : 44-52.  Ж

STEPHENSEN K. (1933) Some new Copepods, parasites of Ophiuroids and Echinids. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Natur historisk Forening i Kobenhavn, 93, p.197-213.

STEPHENSEN K. (1935) Some endoparasitic copepods found in echinids.. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Natur historisk Forening i Kobenhavn, 98, p.223-228.

STOKES M.D., STEWART B.G. & EPEL D. (1998) The kinetics of the cortical reaction and respiratory burst following fertilisation of Sterechinus neumayeri eggs. Antarctic Journal of the United States, 31, (2): 119-120.

STOCK J.H. (1968) The Calvocheridae, a family of copepods inducing galls in sea-urchin spines. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 38, 85-90.

STOCKLEY B., SMITH A.B., LITTLEWOOD T., LESSIOS H.A. & MACKENZIE-DODDS J.A. (2005) Phylogenetic relationships of spatangoid sea urchins (Echinoidea) : taxon sampling density and congruence between morphological and molecular estimates. Zoologica Scripta, 34, 5, p.447-468. Ж

Stott F.C. (1955) The food canal of the sea-urchin Echinus esculentus L. and its functions. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 125: 63-85.

STRATHMANN M. (1987) Reproduction and development of marine invertebrates of the northern Pacific coast. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

STRATHMANN R. R. (1971) The feeding behavior of planktotrophic echinoderm larvae: mechanisms, regulation, and rates of suspension-feeding. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 6:109-160.

STRATHMANN R. R & VEDDER K. (1977) Size and organic content of eggs of echinoderms and other invertebrates as related to developmental strategies and egg eating. Marine Biology 39:305-309.

STRATHMANN R. R. (1978) The evolution and loss of feeding larval stages of marine invertebrates. Evolution 32:894-906.

STRATHMANN R. R. (1978) Length of pelagic period in echinoderms with feeding larvae from the northeast Pacific. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 34:23—27.

STRATHMANN R. R. (1979) Echinoid larvae from the northeast Pacific (with a key and comment on an unusual type of planktotrophic development). Canadian Journal of Zoology 57:610-616.

STRATHMANN R.R. (1981) On barriers to hybridization between Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (MULLER) and S. pallidus (SARS). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 55, p.39-47.

STRATHMANN R. R. (1985) Feeding and non-feeding larval development and life-history evolution in marine invertebrates. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16:339-361.

STRATHMANN R. R. (1987) Larval feeding. Pages 465-550 in A. C. Giese, J. S. Pearse, and V. Pearse, eds. Reproduction in marine invertebrates. Vol. 9. General aspects: seeking unity in diversity. Blackwell Scientific, Palo Alto, Calif.

STRATHMANN M. (1987) Phylum Echinodermata, class Echinoidea. Pp. 522-534 in M. Strathmann, ed. Reproduction and devel­opment of marine invertebrates of the northern Pacific coast. Univ. of Washington Press, Seattle.

STRATHMANN R.R. (1988) Larae, phylogeny and von Baer's law. p.53-68 in Echinoderm Phylogeny and Evolutionary Biology, PAUL C.R.C. & SMITH A.B. es, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

STRENGER A. (1963) Klasse : Echinoidea (Seeigel). In: R. Riedl (Ed.), Fauna und Flora der Adria, pp. 454-460. Paul Parey, Hamburg - Berlin.

SU X.S., KAMAT S. & HEUER A.H. (2000) The structure of sea urchin spines, large biogenic single crystals of calcite. Journal of Materials Science, 35, p.5545-5551.

Su Y.H.& Vacquier V.D. (2002) A flagellar K+-dependent Na+ / Ca2+ exchanger keeps Ca2+ low in sea urchin spermatozoa, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, USA 99 : 6743-6748.

Sugita S., Ichtehenko K., Khvotehev M. & Sudhof T.C. (1998) α-latrotoxin receptor CIRL/latrophilin 1 (CL1) defines an unusual family of ubiquitous G-protein coupled receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 32715-32724.

Sumich J.L. & McCauley J.E. (1973) Growth of sea urchin, Allocentrotus fragilis, off Oregon coast. Pacif. Sci., 27(2): 156-167.

SUNDERLAND MA., MATSUOKA N. & INAMORI M. (1996) Phylogenetic relationships of echinoids of the family Temnopleuridae inferred from allozyme variation. Genes Genet. Syst, 71, 203-209.