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WADDELL B. J., PERRY R. I., SCHARF G. & ROSS G. (1997) Surveys of green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) popu­lations in Queen Charlotte Strait, British Columbia, October 1995 and March 1996. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences no. 2143.

Wang C.C. (1984) New classification of clypeasteroid echinoids. Proc. Geol. Soc. China 37: 119-152.

WANG D.G., KIRCHHAMER C.V., BRITTEN R.J. & DAVIDSON E.H. (1995) SpZ12-l, a negative regulator required for spatial control of the territory-specific CylIIa gene in the sea urchin embryo. Development 111, 1111-1122.

WANG Z.C. & CHANG Y.Q. (1997) Research prospects for mariculture of sea urchin. Marine Science (en chinois), 2, p.22-24.

WANG Z.C. & CHANG Y.Q. (1997) Studies on seeds cultivation of Japanese sea urchin S. intermedius. Journal of China Fisheries Science (en chinois), 4, (1), p.60-67.

WARNAU M. & PAGANO G. (1994) Developmental toxicity of PbCl2 in the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 53, p.434-441.

WARNAU M., TEYSSIE J.-L. & FOWLER S.C. (1995) Efect of feeding on cadmium bioaccumulation in the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 126, p.305-309.

WARNAU M., LEDENT G., TEMARA A., JANGOUX M. & DUBOIS P. (1995) Experimental cadmium contamination of the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus : Influence of exposure mode and distribution of the metal in the organism. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 116, p.117-124.

WARNAU M., LEDENT G., TEMARA A., JANGOUX M. & DUBOIS P. (1995) Heavy metals in Posidonia oceanica and Paracentrotus lividus from seagrass beds of north-western Mediterranean, Sci. total Envir., 171, p.95-99.

WARNAU M., ALVA V., TEMARA A., LEDENT G., JANGOUX M. & DUBOIS P. (1995) Geographical variations in allometry of heavy metal bioconcentration in the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus. In : Echinoderm Research 1995 (EMSON R.H., SMITH A.B. & CAMPBELL A.C. eds), p.83-87, Balkema, Rotterdam.

WARNAU M., TEYSSIE J.-L. & FOWLER S.W. (1996) Biokinetics of selected heavy metals and radionuclides in the common mediterranean echinoid Paracentrotus lividus : sea water and food exposures. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 141, p.83-94.

WARNAU M., IACCARINO M., DE BIASE A., TEMARA A., JANGOUX M., DUBOIS P. & PAGANO G. (1996) Spermiotoxicity and embryotoxicity of heavy metals in the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 15, p.1931-1936.

WARNAU M., TEYSSIE J.-L., & FOWLER S.W. (1997) Cadmium bioconcentration in the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus : influence of the cadmium concentration in seawater. Mar. Environ. Res., 43, p.303-314.

WARNAU M., IACCARINO M., DE BIASE A., TEMARA A. & PAGANO G. (1998) Influence of chemical speciation on developmental toxicity of lead in the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata). In : MOOI R. & TELFORD M. eds, Echinoderms : San Francisco. Balkema, Rotterdam, p.873-878.

WARNAU M., DE BIASE A., IACCARINO M., TEMARA A., JANGOUX M., DUBOIS P. & PAGANO G. (1998) Developmental toxicity of heavy metals in the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus : effects of multi-element exposures. In : MOOI R. & TELFORD M. eds, Echinoderms : San Francisco. Balkema, Rotterdam, p.867-871.

WASSON K.M. & WATTS S.A. (1998) Estradiol, testosterone and progesterone affect ovarian development in the echinoid Lytechinus variegatus. Amer. Zool. 37, (5): 182A (résumé)

WASSON K.M. & WATTS S.A. (1998) Proscar® (Finasteride) inhibits 5-reductase in the ovaries and testes of Lytechinus variegatus Lamarck (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Comparative Physiology Biochemistry C 120, p.425-431.

WASSON K.M., HINES G.A. & WATTS S.A. (1998) Androgen metabolism in the gonads of the echinoid Lytechinus variegatus during three annual reproductive cycles. Amer. Zool. 38, (5), p.111A (résumé).

WASSON K.M., HINES G.A. & WATTS S.A. (1998) Synthesis of testosterone and a 5a-androstanediols during nutritionally stimulated gonadal growth in Lytechinus variegatus in response to feeding. General and Comparative Endocrinology 111, p.197-206.

WATTS S.A., BOETTGER A., McCLINTOCK J.B. & LAWRENCE J.M.  (1998) Gonad production in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) fed prepared diets. North American Echinoderm Meeting, Wallops Island, Maryland. (résumé).

WATTS S.A., BOETTGER A., McCLINTOCK J.B. & LAWRENCE J.M. Lawrence (1998) Assessment of Lytechinus variegatus and a fishery and aquaculture candidate in the Gulf of Mexico. World Aquaculture Society, Las Vegas, Nevada. p.573 (résumé).

WATTS S.A., BOETTGER S.A., McCLINTOCK J.B. & LAWRENCE J.M.  (1998) Gonad production in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) fed prepared diets. J. Shellfish Res., 17, p.1592-1595.

Webster S.K. (1975) Oxygen consumption in echinoderms from several geographical locations, with particular reference to the Echinoidea. Biol. Bull. 148: 57-164.

Webster S.K. & Giese A.C. (1975) Oxygen consumption of the purple sea urchin with special reference to the reproductive cycle. Biol. Bull., 148:165-180.

WEISSEL G.M. & McCLAY D.R. (1985) Sequential expression of germ-layer specific molecules in sea urchin development. Develop. Biol. 111:451-463.

Wilkie I.C. (1984) Variable tensility in echinoderm collagenous tissue : a review. Mar. Behav. Physiol. 11 : 1-34.

WILKIE I.C., CANDIA CARNEVALI M.D. & ANDRIETTI F. (1998) Mechanical properties of sea-urchin lantern muscles: a comparative investigation of intact muscle groups in Paracentrotus lividus (Lam.) and Stylocidaris affinis (Phil.) (Echinodemata, Echinoidea). J. Comp. Physiol. B 168: 204-212.

Williams C.T. & Harris L.G. (1998) Growth of juvenile green sea urchins on natural and artificial diets. In: R. Mooi & M. Telford (eds). Echinoderms: San Francisco. Balkema, Rotterdam. Pp. 887-892.

WILUMAS D.H.C. & ANDERSON D.T. (1975) The reproductive system, embryonic development, larval development, and metamorphosis of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma (Val.) (Echi-noidea: Echinometridae). Aust. J. Zool. 23:371-403.

WIRTZ P. (1988) Tuleariocaris neglecta Chace 1969 found in association with Diadema antillarum at Madeira, an two new records of decapod crustaceans from the Cape Verde islands. Cour. Forsch. Inst. Senckenb., 105, p.169-171.

WRAY G.A. (1987) Heterochrony and homology in the evolution of echinoid development. Ph.D. Diss. Duke Univ., Durham, NC.

WRAY G.A. & McCLAY D.R. (1988) The origin of spicule-forming cells in a "primitive" sea urchin (Eucidaris tribuloides) which appears to lack pri­mary mesenchyme cells. Development 103:305-315.

WRAY G.A. & McCLAY D.R. (1989) Molecular heterochronies and heterotopies in early echinoid development. Evolution, 43 (4):803-813. Ж

WRAY G.A. & RAFF R.A. (1989) Evolutionary modification of cell lineage in the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogamma. Develop. Biol.

WRAY G.A. & RAFF R.A. (1990) Novel origins of lineage founder cells in the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. Dev. Biol. 141:41-54.

WRAY G. A. & RAFF R. A. (1991) The evolution of developmental strategy in marine invertebrates. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 6:45-50.

WRAY G.A. & RAFF R.A. (1991) Rapid evolution of gastrulation mechanisms in a sea urchin with lecithotrophic larvae. Evolution, 45(8):1741-1750. Ж

WRAY G.A. & BELY A.E. (1994) The evolution of echinoderm development is driven by several distinct factors. Development 1994 (Supplement):97-106.

WRAY G.A (1996) Parallel evolution of nonfeeding larvae in echinoids. Syst. Biol. 45:308-322.

WRAY G.A. & LOWE C.J. (2000) Developmental regulatory genes and echinoderm evolution. Syst. Biol. 49, 151-174.

WYVILLE THOMSON C. (1876) Notice of some peculiarities in the mode of propagation of certain Echinoderms of the Southern Sea. Jour. Linn. Soc. London. Zoology essai, 13, p.55-79.